The microcontroller - a special chip designed to control various electronic devices. The microcontroller integrates processor, memory, ROM, and peripherals within a single housing In fact, this single-chip computer capable of performing relatively simple tasks.
Today, there are more than 200 modifications microcontrollers , produced by dozens of companies. The main and most popular family - AVR, ARM, PIC.
The microcontroller is characterized by a large number of parameters, because it is both a complex software-controlled device and an electronic device (chip). The microcontroller is inside the CPU, memory, program memory, and in addition a set of peripherals.
During the microcontroller are read from memory or input port and executes them. purpose of each team is determined by the system of commands embedded in the architecture of the microcontroller . Execution of the command code is expressed in an internal elements of certain micro-chip.
In microcontroller must be present memory to the microprocessor could send the data, as well as to store a variety of information (including - programs).
In addition to memory, the processor must interact with external devices - periphery. To control the input and output devices, certainly requires appropriate buffer circuits and components. Based on them are implemented interface hardware. How to interact with interface elements presuppose schemes input-output ports, the address decoder and shapers tire buffer circuit.
So, micro contains within itself:
digital versatile ports that can be configured as an input, and the output;
various input-output interfaces, such as UART, I2C, SPI, USB, IEEE, Ethernet;
analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters;
RF receivers and transmitters;
built-in clock and watchdog timer.
Programming micro is usually carried out in assembly or C, although there are special languages designed for programming microcontrollers, for example, GNU Compiler Collection and CodeVisionAVR.
Self-sufficient chip that contains almost everything that it was enough to build a finished product is an example of a typical micro .
Microcontrollers are widely used in products that contain the entire system only in one tiny chip.
Applications micro :
computer technology ;
electronics and home appliances variety of devices, which uses electronic control systems (washing machines, microwave ovens, telephones, as well as in systems of "smart home");
The company GreenChip offers you to purchase a variety of microcontrollers !